Epilepsy in Dogs
“We had three standard Aussies prior to the two we have now –– today we have Bella and Tucker Boy, both miniature Australian shepherds, and they get along like Frick and Frack!” says Dee about her two happy pups. Little did Dee know that her pup Tucker Boy (also just called “Tucker”) would be diagnosed with epilepsy before he was even a year old.
Epilepsy is a general term for neurological disorders and abnormal electrical impulses that cause recurring seizures (with or without loss of consciousness). If your dog experiences more than one episode of seizures, he may be diagnosed as epileptic, and like Tucker, it will need to managed for the rest of his or her life.
Dee and her husband discovered Tucker’s condition one day while attempting to get Bella and Tucker in the pool – “floaties on!” They noticed that Bella would get in while Tucker was hesitant. “He’d chase the ball outside the pool, but on one throw, well, he was at the edge of the pool and started convulsing! He fell in the pool and my husband pulled him out. We thought he had choked on the ball and we really thought he was gone.”
Dee and her husband rushed Tucker to the vet, thinking something was obstructing his airway, but “there was nothing lodged in his mouth.” They were advised to watch him as he might have had a seizure. It was then that Tucker started having seizures almost weekly, and was referred to a veterinarian neurologist.
Symptoms of Epilepsy
Note: If you think your dog may be epileptic, get to the vet as soon as you can, especially if it’s within a short timeframe of your dog’s first seizure.
Some primary symptoms of dog epilepsy include:
- Collapsing or falling down to one side
- Uncontrollable shaking and tremors that can be mild convulsions (twitching, jerking) or even muscle twitching and spasms (especially in the face)
With these seizures, the following may also be present:
- Loss of consciousness or temporary loss of vision
- Excessive drooling or “foaming” at the mouth
- “Paddling” of the legs (as though he’s swimming or treading water)
- Loss of bowels or incontinence
- Marked mental/behavioral changes; barking and whining
- Signs of panic, bewilderment, or confusion; dazed or ‘far away’ look
- Stiffness in the legs and tail
- Teeth chomping; chewing
Epileptic seizures will usually appear the same each time, and will spontaneously come on and finish suddenly. Know what a dog seizure looks like, especially if your dog has diabetes or a metabolic condition that may lead to low blood sugar, which can cause non-epileptic seizures. Some toxicities can also lead to seizure such as insecticides or rat poison.
Your vet will administer a physical and neurological exam, as well as bloodwork and other tests, and then rule out any diseases or illnesses. In addition, some vets call for an MRI (brain scan) as well as a spinal tap (i.e., analyze his cerebrospinal fluid) to further investigate possible causes for your dog’s seizures. Treatment is usually ongoing anti-seizure medication and a special diet.
“They ran all the tests, thinking it might be neurological or even cardiology related,” says Dee. “Tucker was having seizures every other week or so but they didn’t last long. We were told that if they last longer than five minutes, it’s bad. So we monitored and journaled: what did he eat, how long and often were the seizures, what was happening when the seizure took place, etc.”
Tucker has been having seizures now for about two years. “Hopefully it’s juvenile epilepsy and he outgrows it, but he just had a seizure yesterday,” says Dee. He’s on a low dosage of Keppra Levetiracetam, an anti-seizure medication, about three times a day, and Dee says it works the best. “We have to give it to him every 8 hours, and no missing the hour! It must be on the dot 5am, 1pm, and 9pm.” Additionally, Tucker was diagnosed with IBDS (Inflammatory bowel disease), so his medication can’t interfere with that condition.
What Causes Epilepsy?
Overall, seizures can be caused by trauma, toxins, brain tumors, infections or issues with your dog’s blood or organs. Additionally, certain types of seizures can be genetic. Epilepsy can be classified into two main groups: structural, where an underlying cause may be identified in the brain, and idiopathic, which is what Tucker was diagnosed with. It means that there may not be an identifiable underlying cause but it’s typically genetic, although it can possibly be environmental.
Tips for Living with an Epileptic Dog
An epilepsy diagnosis can be startling, and even disheartening. Dee and her husband journal almost everything, and have found little tricks to help Tucker: “When he has a seizure, we give him a little cup of ice cream! He focuses on the cup and it lessens the effects of the seizure.” They have even employed the cup of ice cream while getting groomed: “One of Tucker’s triggers is going to the groomer, so we discovered a mobile grooming van who can come right up to the house! He’s only groomed once or twice a year, and he licks ice cream the whole time to get through it.”
Tucker’s triggers include fear and anxiety, or when he is very excited to play. “We had a party and he just wanted so badly to be a part of everything – and he had a seizure. We just try our best to manage it.”
Here are a few tips for pet parents on how to cope with the disease, and will help manage your pet’s health better:
- Cluster seizures require vet attention ASAP: Multiple seizures in a row are called “cluster seizures.” If your dog has cluster seizures or a seizure that lasts longer than five minutes, get to the vet immediately.
- Avoid the mouth & muzzle: Keep your hands away from your dog’s mouth as she may bite! Dogs cannot swallow their tongues, so there’s no need to put your hands in a dog’s mouth.
- Keep cool: Your dog is at risk of overheating during a seizure. Keep him cool by putting a fan near him or even taking a cold, wet washcloth and wipe his paw pads.
- Get comfortable: Speak in a low, calm voice and try your best to make your dog comfortable (some pet parents put pillows around their dog). Remember to remove sharp-edges from your dog’s environment during a seizure.
- Know your dog’s triggers: By keeping a journal of your dog’s seizures and sharing this with your vet, you can help to understand your dog’s disease. For example, many pet parents like Dee notice that anxiety or fear plays a big part in their dog’s epileptic episodes. Food can also be a trigger –– a good rule of paw is to cut the salt! Don’t feed your dog any foods with excess sodium, as it is a common epileptic trigger.
- Skip the pool: As Dee found out, dogs can have seizures in or by the pool. Because this can put them at risk for drowning, avoid bodies of water and swimming if your pup is epileptic.
After years of having an extensive furry family, Dee knew how high the vet bills could go. “We’d been spending so much over the years before pet insurance and when we found Healthy Paws, it was the perfect fit. We loved that there was no cap, that you could choose your own reimbursement percentage and deductible. They’re both covered even though Bella is as healthy as can be, but poor Tucker really needed that insurance.” To date, Dee has filed over 50 claims totaling $25,426 of which she’s been reimbursed $19,591.
As pet parents, we want our puppies and dogs to be happy and healthy, so a diagnosis of epilepsy can be frustrating or even devastating. By enrolling in pet health insurance prior to symptoms or signs of illness, your vet bills for this chronic condition can be covered up to 90%. Sign up today by first getting a free quote.
If you are a Healthy Paws pet parent with a recovery story to tell, we’d love to hear it! Send your pet’s story along with photos of your four-legged family member to firstname.lastname@example.org